Direct injection - key facts

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added in Auto system and parts by LC Marshal

[img] A cutaway view of a MAN TGX V8 Diesel engine at the Deutsches Museum shows three pistons, cylinders, and common rail diesel injectors. The engine outputs 680hp and 3000 Nm. (2011)

Direct injection (DI) is a method of delivering fuel into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine directly, as opposed to the traditional method of injecting fuel into the intake manifold. This technology has become increasingly popular in modern automotive engines due to its potential benefits in terms of efficiency, power output, and emissions.

Here are some key facts about direct injection:

  1. Injection Point:

    • In direct fuel injection, fuel is delivered directly into the combustion chamber, typically at high pressure. This is in contrast to indirect or port fuel injection, where fuel is injected into the intake manifold before reaching the combustion chamber.
  2. Fuel Atomization:

    • Direct injection allows for better control over the fuel-air mixture, leading to improved fuel atomization. This results in more efficient combustion, better power delivery, and reduced emissions.
  3. High Pressure:

    • Direct injection systems operate at higher fuel pressures compared to traditional port fuel injection. Common rail systems, where fuel is stored at high pressure in a common reservoir, are often used in direct injection setups.
  4. Efficiency and Power:

    • Direct injection contributes to increased engine efficiency by optimizing the air-fuel mixture, allowing for better combustion control. This, in turn, can lead to improved fuel economy and increased power output.
  5. Cooling Effect:

    • Direct injection can have a cooling effect on the incoming air charge, as the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber. This can help reduce the risk of engine knock and allow for higher compression ratios.
  6. Emissions Reduction:

    • Direct injection, when combined with other technologies such as turbocharging, can contribute to lower emissions. The precise control over the air-fuel mixture and combustion process allows for cleaner and more complete burning of fuel.
  7. Carbon Deposits:

    • One challenge associated with direct injection is the potential for carbon deposits to build up on the intake valves over time. This can affect engine performance and efficiency. Some manufacturers address this issue through various strategies, such as using a combination of port and direct fuel injection (known as dual injection).
  8. Turbocharging Synergy:

    • Direct injection is often paired with turbocharging in many modern engines. This combination allows for smaller, more efficient engines that can deliver the power of larger ones while maintaining fuel efficiency.
  9. Common Rail vs. Pump-Cell Systems:

    • Common rail systems store fuel at high pressure in a common reservoir, while pump-cell systems use a high-pressure pump for each injector. Both types are used in direct injection systems, with common rail systems being more common in passenger vehicles.
  10. Automotive Applications: